Human papillomavirus HPVthe primary cause of cervical cancer, is also associated with the development of anal cancer.
Relatively little is known about the epidemiology of anal HPV infection among healthy females and its relationship to cervical infection. We sought to characterize anal HPV infection in a cohort of adult women in Hawaii. Concurrent anal and cervical HPV infection was Spread female anus prevalent among the youngest Spread female anus and steadily decreased through age 50 years. By contrast, the prevalence of anal infection alone remained relatively steady in all age groups.
Compared with cervical infections, the overall distribution of HPV genotypes in the anus was more heterogeneous and included a greater proportion of nononcogenic types. A high degree of genotype-specific concordance was observed among concurrent anal and cervical infections, indicating a common source of infection.
Nevertheless, the association of anal intercourse with anal HPV infection was limited to those women without accompanying cervical infection. The relationship of anal to cervical infection as described in this study has implications for the development of anal malignancies in women. Human papillomavirus HPVthe primary cause of cervical cancer, is also associated with the development of anal cancers 12. A high prevalence of HPV infection in the anus has been observed in immunocompromised, HIV-infected men and women 23but relatively little is known about the epidemiology of anal HPV infection among healthy women and its relationship to cervical infection.
Although it is established that HPV infection can be transmitted to women through receptive anal intercourse 14alternate routes of transmission may be possible. As part of a longitudinal cohort study of cofactors of persistent HPV infection of the cervix, we sought to characterize contemporaneous HPV infection in anal specimens collected from cohort participants. Our objective was to determine the type-specific presence of anal HPV infection, with and without concurrent cervical infection, and to identify factors associated with anal-cervical HPV status.
Inwe Spread female anus a multiethnic cohort in Hawaii to identify determinants of persistent HPV infection of the cervix. The study was approved by the Committee on Human Subjects of the University of Hawaii and individual hospital institutional review boards.
Written informed consent was obtained from all study subjects. Women with a prior hysterectomy, Spread female anus were pregnant within the past year, who had blood-clotting disorders, or who could not speak and understand English were ineligible to participate.
A total of 2, ethnically diverse women were Spread female anus from five clinic sites in Honolulu, HI, and followed with repeat visits at 4-month intervals. Study sites included an urban medical center-based clinic servicing a largely indigent population, two university-based health clinics, a health maintenance organization, and a hospital-based clinical research center.
A Dacron swab and cytology brush were used consecutively to sample the entire ectocervix and endocervix, including the entire transformation zone. The swab and brush were then each placed in separate vials of 1. The collection of anal specimens was optional for study subjects. Following the cervical specimen collection, an exfoliated anal cell specimen was obtained using a Dacron swab moistened with sterile water.
The swab was placed in 1. An interviewer-administered survey was conducted at each study visit.
At enrollment, Spread female anus short survey queried social and demographic information as well as information on tobacco and alcohol use. The survey at the subsequent follow-up visit included questions regarding medical, sexual, and reproductive histories as well as tobacco and alcohol use. The present report focuses on baseline anal and cervical HPV DNA results as well as survey data collected at baseline and the second follow-up visit.
DNA was extracted from anal and cervical specimens using commercial reagents Qiagen, Inc.
Negative controls were void of template. PCR was done in a well format on a Perkin-Elmer as follows: The original DNA specimens from HPV-positive specimens were subsequently genotyped using Spread female anus reverse line blot detection method for 37 different HPV types, including 6, 11, 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 40, 42, 45, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 81, 82, 83, 84, CP, and IS39 67. Spread female anus products were denatured and hybridized to a nylon membrane containing the immobilized HPV probes.
Amplicons hybridized to probes were detected using streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase—mediated color precipitation.
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HPV-positive specimens that were subsequently found to be negative in the genotyping assay were considered to Spread female anus unclassified HPV-positive specimens. Women providing and not providing anal specimens were compared by unconditional multiple logistic regression. Evaluation of anal-cervical HPV status was made using women negative for both anal and cervical infection as the reference. For both analyses, continuous variables, such as lifetime number of sexual partners, were categorized, and indicator variables were created representing the different variable categories.
The trend variable was assigned the median for the appropriate category. Cervical specimens were collected from all 2, women enrolled in this study. Among the participating women, 1, Compared with women not providing anal specimens, women providing anal specimens were more likely to Spread female anus White and more likely to have engaged in anal intercourse Table 1.
There were no differences between the two groups in cervical HPV infection at baseline. Characteristics of study participants by provision of anal specimens, Spread female anus female HPV cohort, to Among the women enrolled in the study, 2, Among the 1, women agreeing to provide anal specimens, 1, Overall, 35 distinct HPV genotypes were detected in both anal and cervical specimens.
HPV genotypes tended to be more diverse among anal specimens compared with cervical specimens, whereas oncogenic HPV Spread female anus were much more common in cervical specimens than in anal specimens. These contrasts were most apparent between infections limited to either the anus or the cervix Fig.
There seemed to be no pattern of genotypic concordance or discordance by type data not shown. Multiple genotypes were also more common in concurrently infected women.
This concurrently infected Spread female anus averaged 2. HPV-negative anus and cervix women were the oldest with a mean age of Relationship of HPV status in paired anal-cervical specimens with selected characteristics, Hawaii female cohort, to A history of Chlamydia infection and nulliparity were associated with concurrent anal and cervical infection.
Early age at initial sexual intercourse was a risk factor for both cervical infection alone and concurrent anal-cervical infection but not for anal HPV infection alone.
A positive association of lifetime number of sexual partners was consistent among all three groups cervical HPV infection alone, concurrent anal and cervical infection, and anal infection Spread female anusalthough the magnitude of the association was attenuated among those with anal HPV infection. A history of anal intercourse was associated with anal infection alone OR, 1. Recent anal intercourse within the past 3 monthshowever, was not associated with anal infection alone for any group.
We further explored the Spread female anus of age by anal-cervical HPV status Fig. The prevalence of cervical HPV infection without accompanying anal infection also showed an overall although less dramatic decrease with age.
In contrast, the prevalence of anal infection alone remained steady at all age groups. HPV, the primary cause of cervical cancer, is also associated with the development of anal cancers 12.
The relationship of anal to cervical infection as described in our findings has implications for the development of anal malignancies in women. The incidence of anal cancer Spread female anus increased among both men and women in the United States over the past 2 decades, and rates have been comparable among sexes in recent years 89.
The histology of the anus shares important parallels with the cervix, including a transitional area of the epithelium, analogous to the cervical transformation zone, where columnar and squamous epithelium meet 2. Furthermore, there is evidence that HPV-induced malignancies of the anus share a Spread female anus history similar to that of the cervix beginning with viral infection and progressing to dysplastic lesions and, finally, invasive cancer Our results suggest that anal HPV Spread female anus is a common infection among healthy, sexually active females with prevalence comparable with cervical infection.
It also suggests that anal and cervical HPV infections are strongly correlated. The multifocal nature of HPV-related disease has been shown in previous studies whereby it is not uncommon for anal and cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions to occur concurrently or consecutively 11 A high degree of genotype-specific concordance was observed among concurrent infections, indicating a common source of infection, such as vaginal and anal intercourse with the same infected partner or partners.
Nevertheless, anal intercourse was not associated with HPV infection among concurrently infected women. Recent studies have observed a lack of association between anal intercourse and anal HPV infection among women Spread female anus This suggests alternate routes of transmission, including sexual and nonsexual means. There is evidence that HPV can be transmitted to the genitals through nonpenetrative sexual contact involving the fingers or mouth of partners Cross-contamination of specimens during the collection process was not likely.
Indeed, these women were older and less likely to be Japanese and Hawaiian. Unlike the other two groups cervical infection alone and concurrent anal and cervical infection where risk of infection decreased with age, age was not associated with anal HPV infection alone.
A history of ever engaging in anal intercourse was associated with increased risk of HPV only among these women with infection limited to the anus and no association was observed for recent anal intercourse. With the exception of anal intercourse, associations with sexual risk factors were either absent or attenuated among this group compared with other groups.
Our results suggest that different HPV genotypes may have different tropism to the anus compared with the cervix. The overall distribution varied considerably in the anus compared with the cervix.
Anal genotypes were more heterogeneous with a higher proportion of nononcogenic types.